This resource has been designed as a step-by-step tool for educators interested in ways to use data to inform their 教学实践. This tool can be used by individuals or teams to guide the identification of a problem statement, 数据源的选择, 数据分析, 行动计划, 以及练习的调整.   

这取决于你处理数据的经验, you may choose one step to focus on or follow the full process from beginning to end. Each step in the process includes a series of questions to consider and guidance on how to facilitate meaningful and focused conversations with colleagues about data

There is no right kind of data to use for this process; 然而, we recommend starting with data that exists within your sphere of influence. 例如, looking at school-wide data may provide some interesting insights about the context in which you are teaching, 但可能很难在课堂层面施加影响. 而不是, prioritizing data related to what’s happening in your own classroom (e.g., your own students’ assessment scores or classroom observations) can yield more meaningful and actionable insights that can be used to inform instructional adjustments. 



It can be helpful to brainstorm some possible questions you have about student achievement, 教学实践, 或者教室条件有利于学习. This initial brainstorm can help you to articulate a problem statement or guiding question that will help direct your data inquiry process.



Once you have identified the problem statement or guiding question you want to investigate further, 下一步是确定要审查的特定数据源. While standardized testing data can serve as a valuable tool for understanding student achievement trends in our schools, they may not always provide educators with the real-time data necessary to make day-to-day decisions about how to adjust instruction to best meet the needs of students. 有, 然而, a wide range of other data that educators are collecting everyday that can provide immediate and valuable information about students that informs and influences how we teach, 以及我们审查的地点和内容, 调整, 和reteach


  • 教室里的数据
  • 标准化考试成绩
  • 学生的特点


  • 形成性评估
  • 总结性评估
  • 学生工作
  • 课堂观察
  • 学生调查或反馈


  • 状态评估
  • SAT分数
  • 美联社分数


  • 人口统计资料
  • 以前的学习成绩或课程学习模式
  • 非学术的数据



    一旦您确定了一组要检查的数据, 考虑可视化数据的方法可能会有帮助. Looking at spreadsheets packed with student test scores can be overwhelming and make it difficult to pull out potential patterns. 而不是, taking the time to generate some simple charts or graphs can make a big difference in terms of making the data accessible and meaningful.

    将数据以用户友好的格式组合在一起后, 你应该复习, 分析, and interpret the data to determine the most appropriate next steps. At this stage, focus on making data observations: What do we observe in the data? 我们注意到了什么模式? 关于我们学生的优势和挑战,我们可以推断出什么?

    花点时间承认你的数据的局限性. 例如, 数据可能只显示了学生一年的表现, 而不是支持一种趋势的一系列年份. This does not mean the data won’t be helpful; 然而, 你所能得出的结论可能是有限的. This process might also prompt thinking about additional data sources that could be helpful to better understand your problem statement.


    The following protocol can help you have an effective and productive conversation about your data.

    • 预测(3分钟)
    • 观察(10分钟)
    • 推断(10分钟)
    • 接下来的步骤(10分钟)
    • 对数据进行预测
    • 我认为数据会显示什么?
    • 是什么样的假设引导着我的预测?
    • 观察数据所显示的内容. (我看到...,我注意到...)
    • Record only what the data shows (patterns, commonalities, discrepancies, etc.)
    • 进行推断并提出问题
    • 根据这些数据我能得出什么推论呢?
    • 有什么可能的解释吗?
    • 这又提出了什么问题呢?
    • 哪些领域需要进一步探索?
    • 这些数据对学生的学习有什么意义呢?
    • 这些数据如何影响我的实践?
    • 我们能用更多的数据来回答哪些问题呢?
    • 这些数据表明什么应该是我们工作中的优先事项?

    请 note: Although independent review of data can be helpful for reflecting on what’s happening in our classrooms, we highly recommend connecting with at least one other colleague to collaboratively review your data and brainstorm potential action steps in response to the patterns you see emerging.

    行动计划 & 调整练习

    一旦你完成了数据对话协议, you can use your conclusions to identify student learning goals on which to focus improvements and map out specific action steps for adjusting your practice. Your 数据分析 can lead you to identify patterns in student learning, 包括共同的优势和挑战. 在这个步骤中, you can engage in conversations with colleagues to formulate hypotheses about the reasons for these patterns, including why students are performing in a certain way and how specific adjustments to your instruction can help students achieve your learning goals. 基于你的假设, 你可能会决定改变或补充你的课程, 尝试新的教学策略, 或者寻找其他资源来更好地支持学生的学习.



    目标: 你希望实现什么目标? 在你的课堂上,你寻求解决什么样的挑战?
    理由是: 是什么数据促使你做出这个行动计划?
    我将做哪些具体的改变 在我的教室里实施?
    我什么时候实现这个 改变?
    我将如何以及何时进行测量 朝着目标的进步?
    我怎么知道改变了我 实施改进的结果?
    反映 & 调整:
    • Should we continue with our action plan or choose a new area of focus?

    有兴趣了解更多? 让我们谈谈.

    Personalized, equitable, and student-centered education is too important to put aside. 共同努力,我们可以提高您所有学生的学习.